[106], A delegation, consisting of the representatives of the twelve important clans of Medina, invited Muhammad to serve as chief arbitrator for the entire community; due to his status as a neutral outsider. [280] During the 19th century, Iran saw a boom of printed and illustrated mi'raj books, with Muhammad's face veiled, aimed in particular at illiterates and children in the manner of graphic novels. However, the Quranic sura "Al-Fath" (The Victory) (Quran 48:1–29) assured them that the expedition must be considered a victorious one. Tribal affiliation, whether based on kinship or alliances, was an important source of social cohesion. Muhammad (Arabic: محمد‎) is the primary transliteration of the Arabic given name .mw-parser-output .script-arabic,.mw-parser-output .script-Arab{font-family:Scheherazade,Lateef,LateefGR,Amiri,"Noto Naskh Arabic","Droid Arabic Naskh",Harmattan,"Arabic Typesetting","Traditional Arabic","Simplified Arabic","Times New Roman",Arial,"Sakkal Majalla","Microsoft Uighur",Calibri,"Microsoft Sans Serif","Segoe UI",serif,sans-serif;font-weight:normal}مُحَمَّد‎ that comes from the passive participle of the Arabic verb ḥammada (حَمَّدَ), praise, which comes from the triconsonantal Semitic root Ḥ-M-D. [92][93][94][95] Later, the incident received some acceptance among certain groups, though strong objections to it continued onwards past the tenth century. At the age of six, Muhammad lost his biological mother Amina to illness and became an orphan. A Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly: This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 05:29. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary A male given name from Arabic very popular among MuslimsAlternative forms []. At the age of 25, Muhammad married the wealthy Khadijah bint Khuwaylid who was 40 years old. Some men who have Muhammad (or variant) as a first name choose not to use it, as it is such a common name. After several unsuccessful negotiations, he found hope with some men from Yathrib (later called Medina). Two pagans, Asma bint Marwan of the Aws Manat tribe and Abu 'Afak of the 'Amr b. [166][167] A clan of the Bakr made a night raid against the Khuza'a, killing a few of them. [122], The victory strengthened Muhammad's position in Medina and dispelled earlier doubts among his followers. [11], In 2009 Mohamed, the most common spelling variant, was ranked 430th in the US. Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni. A Meccan man named Mut'im ibn Adi (and the protection of the tribe of Banu Nawfal) made it possible for him to safely re-enter his native city. He addressed the issue of inheritance by forbidding false claims of paternity or of a client relationship to the deceased and forbade his followers to leave their wealth to a testamentary heir. According to the sixth edition of The Columbia Encyclopedia (2000), Muhammad is probably the most common given name in the world, including variations. [252][253][254][255][256] Quran 10:37 states that "...it (the Quran) is a confirmation of (revelations) that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book—wherein there is no doubt—from The Lord of the Worlds.". Muhammad definition: 1. the Arab prophet through whom the Koran was revealed and the religion of Islam established and…. This event happened five years before the first revelation by Gabriel to him. [78], The key themes of the early Quranic verses included the responsibility of man towards his creator; the resurrection of the dead, God's final judgment followed by vivid descriptions of the tortures in Hell and pleasures in Paradise, and the signs of God in all aspects of life. [9] Word of the day [212] The Quran requires payment of an alms tax (zakat) for the benefit of the poor; as Muhammad's power grew he demanded that tribes who wished to ally with him implement the zakat in particular.[213][214]. [169] In 630, Muhammad marched on Mecca with 10,000 Muslim converts. [183] He abolished old blood feuds and disputes based on the former tribal system and asked for old pledges to be returned as implications of the creation of the new Islamic community. Between his eyebrows there was a vein which distended when he was angry. The pre-Islamic Middle East was dominated by the Byzantine and Sassanian empires. These accounts agree that Meccan persecution played a major role in Muhammad's decision to suggest that a number of his followers seek refuge among the Christians in Abyssinia. Monotheistic communities existed in Arabia, including Christians and Jews. [129] In the ensuing months, the Meccans sent ambush parties to Medina while Muhammad led expeditions against tribes allied with Mecca and sent raiders onto a Meccan caravan. Furthermore, in the lands that would be conquered by Muslims many Christians (Nestorians, Monophysites, Jacobites and Copts) were disaffected from the Eastern Orthodox Church which deemed them heretics. Caetani and J. Burton have argued against the historicity of the story on other grounds. The Banu Hawazin were old enemies of the Meccans. Muhammad (PBUH) Meaning in English Muhammad (PBUH) Meaning in English: Searching meanings in English can be beneficial for understanding the context in an efficient manner. Muslims regard him as God's messenger through whom the Koran was revealed. Muhammad delivered Quranic verses permitting Muslims to fight the Meccans (see sura Al-Hajj, Quran 22:39–40). Muslims believe it represents the words of God revealed by the archangel Gabriel to Muhammad. Muhammad has been accused of sadism and mercilessness— including the invasion of the Banu Qurayza tribe in Medina[318][319][320][321][322][323]—sexual relationships with slaves, and his marriage to Aisha when she was six years old,[317] which according to most estimates was consummated when she was nine.[324]. His complexion was azhar [bright, luminous]. View the pronunciation for Muhammad. Muhammad's attempts to prevent a confederation against him were unsuccessful, though he was able to increase his own forces and stopped many potential tribes from joining his enemies. These are honorific titles in Arabic, sharif meaning 'noble' and sayed or sayyid meaning 'lord' or 'sir'. [83] However, the Quranic exegesis maintains that it began as Muhammad started public preaching. Muhammad began to prepare for a campaign. The idea is credited to a Persian convert to Islam, Salman the Persian. Those who migrated from Mecca along with Muhammad became known as muhajirun (emigrants). Such was the case when he wished to marry Zainab, the wife of his adopted son Zaid. By God, it is death!" In 616 (or 617), the leaders of Makhzum and Banu Abd-Shams, two important Quraysh clans, declared a public boycott against Banu Hashim, their commercial rival, to pressure it into withdrawing its protection of Muhammad. [36] Communal life was essential for survival in the desert conditions, supporting indigenous tribes against the harsh environment and lifestyle. While these continued, rumors spread that one of the Muslim negotiators, Uthman bin al-Affan, had been killed by the Quraysh. Min Makkah Habibi nuru sata’ aal Madinah. With the death of Abu Talib, leadership of the Banu Hashim clan passed to Abu Lahab, a tenacious enemy of Muhammad. The earliest Syriac source is the 7th-century writer John bar Penkaye. Notable scholars at the time argued against the historic authenticity of these verses and the story itself on various grounds. Muhammad was proportionate, stout, firm-gripped, even of belly and chest, broad-chested and broad-shouldered. [173][174] According to reports collected by Ibn Ishaq and al-Azraqi, Muhammad personally spared paintings or frescos of Mary and Jesus, but other traditions suggest that all pictures were erased. "[291] After quoting Heinrich Heine, who said in a letter to some friend that "I must admit that you, great prophet of Mecca, are the greatest poet and that your Quran... will not easily escape my memory", John Tolan goes on to show how Jews in Europe in particular held more nuanced views about Muhammad and Islam, being an ethnoreligious minority feeling discriminated, they specifically lauded Al-Andalus, and thus, "writing about Islam was for Jews a way of indulging in a fantasy world, far from the persecution and pogroms of nineteenth-century Europe, where Jews could live in harmony with their non-Jewish neighbors. According to this account—initially mentioned by Al-Waqidi then rehashed by Ibn Sa'ad and Tabari, but not by Ibn Hisham and not by Ibn Ishaq[88]—Muhammad, desperately hoping for an accommodation with his tribe, pronounced a verse acknowledging the existence of three Meccan goddesses considered to be the daughters of Allah. [77] According to the Quran, one of the main roles of Muhammad is to warn the unbelievers of their eschatological punishment (Quran 38:70, Quran 6:19). In 613,[10] Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly,[11] proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" (islām) to God[12] is the right way of life (dīn),[13] and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam. Muhammad retracted the verses the next day at the behest of Gabriel, claiming that the verses were whispered by the devil himself. As Muhammad's only descendants, they are respected by both Sunni and Shi'a, though the Shi'a place much more emphasis and value on their distinction. [16] The Arab population of Yathrib were familiar with monotheism and were prepared for the appearance of a prophet because a Jewish community existed there. A Meccan force was sent to protect the caravan and went on to confront the Muslims upon receiving word that the caravan was safe. Within a decade Muslims conquered Mesopotamia, Byzantine Syria, Byzantine Egypt,[207] large parts of Persia, and established the Rashidun Caliphate. [70] [285] Voltaire had a somewhat mixed opinion on Muhammad: in his play Le fanatisme, ou Mahomet le Prophète he vilifies Muhammad as a symbol of fanaticism, and in a published essay in 1748 he calls him "a sublime and hearty charlatan", but in his historical survey Essai sur les mœurs, he presents him as legislator and a conqueror and calls him an "enthusiast. Towns and cities dotted the landscape; two of the most prominent being Mecca and Medina. [165], The truce of Hudaybiyyah was enforced for two years. [114] According to the traditional account, on 11 February 624, while praying in the Masjid al-Qiblatayn in Medina, Muhammad received revelations from God that he should be facing Mecca rather than Jerusalem during prayer. [158], Negotiations commenced with emissaries traveling to and from Mecca. Instead they use another given name. [16][283] Guillaume Postel was among the first to present a more positive view of Muhammad when he argued that Muhammad should be esteemed by Christians as a valid prophet. (uncountable) The 47th sura (chapter) of the Qur'an. 2001-07", "Is Muhammad the most popular boy's name in Britain? The name Muḥammad is the strictest and primary transliteration of the Arabic given name, محمد, that comes from the Arabic passive participle of ḥammada (حَمَّدَ), praise, and further from triconsonantal Semitic root Ḥ-M-D (praise); hence praised, or praiseworthy. Most of his early life was spent as a merchant. [289] Carlyle's interpretation has been widely cited by Muslim scholars as a demonstration that Western scholarship validates Muhammad's status as a great man in history. [226][227] After Khadijah's death, Khawla bint Hakim suggested to Muhammad that he should marry Sawda bint Zama, a Muslim widow, or Aisha, daughter of Um Ruman and Abu Bakr of Mecca. This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated the successor by Muhammad at Ghadir Khumm. 4–5, "Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world. [246], Nine of Muhammad's wives survived him. [67][68] Islamic tradition holds that during one of his visits to that cave, in the year 610 the angel Gabriel appeared to him and commanded Muhammad to recite verses that would be included in the Quran. Muhammad is said to have had thirteen wives in total (although two have ambiguous accounts, Rayhana bint Zayd and Maria al-Qibtiyya, as wife or concubine[222][223]). [171] Some of these were later pardoned. [42][43] According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad himself was a Hanif and one of the descendants of Ishmael, son of Abraham. Muhammad performed household chores such as preparing food, sewing clothes, and repairing shoes. 9, pp. Later, during the Mi'raj, Muhammad is said to have toured heaven and hell, and spoke with earlier prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. [281] Another Greek source for Muhammad is Theophanes the Confessor, a 9th-century writer. Haykal, M.H. When he walked, he walked as though he went down a declivity. Translation of '[محمد (ص) [وحشنا | Muhammad (Pbuh) [Waheshna]' by Maher Zain from Arabic to English Deutsch English Español Français Hungarian Italiano Nederlands Polski Português (Brasil) Română Svenska Türkçe Ελληνικά Български Русский Српски العربية فارسی 日本語 한국어 Muhammad, Prophet of Islam and proclaimer of the Qur’an. [38][39], In pre-Islamic Arabia, gods or goddesses were viewed as protectors of individual tribes, their spirits being associated with sacred trees, stones, springs and wells. [166][167] The tribe of Banu Khuza'a had good relations with Muhammad, whereas their enemies, the Banu Bakr, had allied with the Meccans. His hair was neither curly nor lank. Learn more. News of Uthman's safety allowed for negotiations to continue, and a treaty scheduled to last ten years was eventually signed between the Muslims and Quraysh. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [192] He was buried where he died in Aisha's house. [65][66], Muhammad began to pray alone in a cave named Hira on Mount Jabal al-Nour, near Mecca for several weeks every year. [16], Followers of the Baháʼí Faith venerate Muhammad as one of a number of prophets or "Manifestations of God". Converts to Islam came from nearly all Arab tribes in Medina; by June of the subsequent year, seventy-five Muslims came to Mecca for pilgrimage and to meet Muhammad. For talent popularity and style muhammad Ali stands alone: 4. According to Ibn Ishaq, this was influenced by the conversion of Sa'd ibn Mu'adh (a prominent Medinan leader) to Islam. Personal experiences with the name Muhammad Nicknames for Muhammad. [6] He was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, and upon his death, by his uncle Abu Talib. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. The siege of Medina began on 31 March 627 and lasted two weeks. Aisha was exonerated from accusations when Muhammad announced he had received a revelation confirming Aisha's innocence and directing that charges of adultery be supported by four eyewitnesses (sura 24, An-Nur). (1933) The Life of Muhammad, translated by Isma'il Razi A. al-Faruqi. [85][86], In 615, some of Muhammad's followers emigrated to the Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksum and founded a small colony under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian emperor Aṣḥama ibn Abjar. [146][147] Walid N. Arafat and Barakat Ahmad have disputed the accuracy of Ibn Ishaq's narrative. Nemoy is sourcing Ahmad's, Kister, "The Massacre of the Banu Quraiza", Harold Wayne Ballard, Donald N. Penny, W. Glenn Jonas (2002), p. 163, Ibn Ishaq (translated by Guillaume, A. Being alarmed at the departure, according to tradition, the Meccans plotted to assassinate Muhammad. [194][197][198] You took them in God's trust, and legitimated your sexual relations with the Word of God, so come to your senses people, and hear my words ..." He told them that they were entitled to discipline their wives but should do so with kindness. 916–18. [211][page needed] "[60], In his teens, Muhammad accompanied his uncle on Syrian trading journeys to gain experience in commercial trade. Get Asma-e-Muhammad (PBUH) in video format The prophet, who looked upon every evident correction of his gospel as an attack upon his own reputation, brooked no contradiction, and unhesitatingly threw down the gauntlet to the Jews. [191], Academics Reşit Haylamaz and Fatih Harpci say that Ar-Rafiq Al-A'la is referring to God. [101][page needed], Muhammad's wife Khadijah and uncle Abu Talib both died in 619, the year thus being known as the "Year of Sorrow". [21][22][23] The Quran, however, provides minimal assistance for Muhammad's chronological biography; most Quranic verses do not provide significant historical context. Find Muhammad Taqqee multiple name meanings and name pronunciation in English, Arabic and Urdu. According to him, most of the Muslims returned to Mecca prior to Hijra, while a second group rejoined them in Medina. Pagans who had not yet converted were very bitter about the advance of Islam. 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