), and Cape Saint Charles in the east (55°40’ W long.). Mountain topography is typical for the eastern parts of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and the coast of Greenland. Gray earths and the primitive soils of subtropical deserts characterize the interior of the Mexican Highlands; tropical desert soils are found in Lower (Baja) California. (The political subdivisions of North America are given in Table 3.). The mantle of the Great Plains also includes deposits from the Mesozoic and continental Cenozoic. North America, extending to within 10° of latitude of both the equator and the North Pole, embraces every climatic zone, from tropical rain forest and savanna on the lowlands of Central America to areas of permanent ice cap in central Greenland. Between 1784 and 1795 the Russian explorers G. I. Sheli-khov, A. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries J. Powell, J. Dawson, A. Brooks, and other American and Canadian geologists completed the exploration of the Rocky Mountains, the Laurentian Upland, the Yukon Plateau, and the Alaska Range (with Mount McKinley, the highest point in North America) and discovered the Brooks Range. Most of the deposits of useful minerals in North America are confined to the Canadian Shield and the Cordilleras. In southern Florida and parts of Central America the coast is formed of coral reefs and mangrove swamps. The Spanish-speaking peoples of North America are the Mexicans (roughly 50 million, including some 4 million in the USA), Cubans (8.8 million), and the bulk of the population of the Dominican Republic (4.5 million), El Salvador (3.5 million), Guatemala (3.1 million), Puerto Rico (2.9 million), Honduras (2.5 million), Nicaragua (1.9 million), Costa Rica (1.9 million), and Panama (1.5 million). The Cordilleras include a number of mountain arcs with a predominantly northwest to southeast orientation. In 1774–75, Spanish seamen explored the west coast of North America to 55° N lat., discovering the mouth of the Columbia River, the west coast of Vancouver Island, and some of the Queen Charlotte Islands along the way. Note: Although Newfoundland has "unknown" trade goods, its weights are such that it can only get fish (everything else is fixed at 0%). Glacially fed rivers are characteristic of the northwestern USA, western Canada, and southwestern Alaska. In 1609 the French navigator S. de Champlain discovered the northern Appalachians, and between 1615 and 1648, Cham-plain, his agents (among them E. Brulé), and several Jesuits (including J. de Brébeuf) discovered the Great Lakes. World Federation of Direct Selling Associations. RLCS Season X is the second RLCS season in 2020, crossing over into 2021. The forest-steppe vegetation has not been preserved in its natural form. Coal deposits occur in the Cretaceous beds of the Rocky Mountains and in the interior basins of the Canadian Cordilleras. The largest city by population is Mexico City. Their discoveries, however, were not known in the Old World. ed. The forest-tundra, stretching in a band roughly 100-200 km wide, includes coniferous forests (along river valleys), tundras, and open woodlands (on watersheds). On the west the belt of plateaus and uplands is bounded by the highest mountain ranges in the Cordilleras. Together with the Ohio River and numerous other tributaries, it drains most of S central North America and forms the world's greatest inland waterway system. Much of the area north of 56° N lat. The Great Lakes region and the northern Appalachians have brown forest soils, unsaturated in the north and saturated in the south. In 1806–07, Z. Pike discovered the highest peaks in the Rocky Mountains in the southern Rockies near the headwaters of the Arkansas River. The central parts of the plains are deeply dissected by rivers and gulleys, and south of 38° N lat. Climate. Permafrost occurs everywhere. In the northern part of the system (Alaska and northwestern Canada), large and relatively high massifs with a flat or rolling surface alternate with broad accumulative basins connected by river valleys. The principal epoch of folding and thrust-fault formation in the western part of the eugeosyncline was the Late Miocene. 1989); T. L. McKnight, Regional Geography of the United States and Canada (1992); S. Birdsall, Regional Landscapes of the United States and Canada (4th rev. High ranges covered with snow fields and glaciers adjoin vast undrained desert plateaus. , and Algonquin, were formed by glacial meltwater; their remnants are still visible in the Great BasinGreat Basin,semiarid, N section of the Basin and Range province, the intermontane plateau region of W United States and N Mexico. In the Cordilleras there are many known deposits, in some places quite large, of gold, silver, copper, zinc, lead (Pine Point), molybdenum, tungsten, and mercury; iron ore is less widespread. Only the mountain regions, influenced by trade winds from the Caribbean Sea, also receive abundant precipitation during the winter. Note: The continents, regions and areas of EU4 do not always match reality. As a result of these processes, warm rainy weather with snow in the mountains predominates during the winter on the Pacific coast; most of Alaska, the interior plateaus of the Cordilleras, and northwestern Canada have dry, cold weather; and the central and eastern parts of the continent have unstable weather with freezes and thaws and frequent snowfall. The three major desert regions of North Americathe Sonoran, Mojave, and Chihuahuanare all in the American southwest and northern Mexico. Cascadia. On the windward slopes grow low thorn forests (at the foot) and deciduous tropical forests; coniferous forests are found at the peaks. The Appalachians are a system of folded mountain ranges, valleys, and plateaus. Note: Although Newfoundland has "unknown" trade goods, its weights are such that it can only get fish... Caribbeans. The smooth salt surface of the Flats is ideal for auto racing, and several world land speed records have been set there...... Click the link for more information. has an annual radiation balance of less than 20 kcal/sq cm, or 84 kj/sq cm (Greenland has a negative balance), but to the south it increases rapidly, reaching 60–80 kcal/sq km, or 250–335 kj/sq cm south of 30° N lat. North America includes all of the mainland and related offshore islands lying N of the Isthmus of Panama (which connects it with South America). J. Franklin’s expeditions in 1821 and 1826 (J. Richardson took part in the second) explored large stretches of the north coast from 149° to 114° W long., discovering the Dolphin and Union Strait, Coronation Gulf, and the southwestern shore of Victoria Island. The present boundaries of the USA were established through the expropriation of land belonging to the indigenous Indians (including the colonization of western territories), as well as through wars and other acquisitions, such as the purchase of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands from tsarist Russia in 1867. Asia stretches from former "stans" of the USSR to the Pacific Ocean. Elbert (14,431 ft/4,399 m) in Colorado is the highest peak...... Click the link for more information. Crossing North America from 1804 to 1806, the Americans M. Lewis and W. Clark followed the Missouri River from its mouth to its headwaters, which they discovered, and then pushed on over the central Rocky Mountains. Near the Great Plains they give way to chernozems, which occupy a much smaller area in North America than in Eurasia. Air from the Gulf of Mexico, moving northeast along the western periphery of the Azores anticyclone, spreads over the continent bringing large amounts of moisture to the central and eastern regions. In the southern Labrador Peninsula these soils give way to illuvial ferruginous-humic podzols, formed on light-textured moraine and fluvioglacial deposits. To the west the mountains gradually become lower and are replaced by the plateaus and lowlands that are characteristic of the western islands of the archipelago. The major British discoveries in the Canadian arctic during the 19th century were related to the quest for the Northwest Passage. Some churches have branches in both countries and several others have close relations because they belong to the same confessionnal family or have entered agreements of full communion. Temperatures below 0°C occur everywhere except on the west coast south of 40° N lat., the southern tip of Florida, and the lowlands of southern Mexico and Central America. (north of 44° N lat. Anticyclones often develop above the inner plateaus of the Cordilleras. North America region is home to a large number of technology companies, and thus the impact of coronavirus outbreak is anticipated to be quite severe in the year 2020 and likely in 2021. In 1524, G. da Verrazano, an Italian navigator in the French service, explored the east coast of North America from 34° to 46° N lat. Its coastline is long and irregular. The modern population of Mexico and mainland Central America evolved through the intermingling of Spaniards and local Indians. The Central and Great Plains are used intensively for agriculture. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. The surviving Aleuts, about 5,000 persons, live on the Aleutian Islands. The American, or Southern, Cordilleras constitute the highest part of the Cordilleras. They also sailed into Baffin Bay as far as 74° N lat. Greenland and the eastern part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago have a harsh climate with low summer and winter temperatures and relatively large amounts of precipitation, causing considerable glaciation. Note: The region Colombia belongs mainly to South America. on the east—separated by a system of intermontane plateaus and basins. In the Far North, along the coasts of the mainland and of the Arctic islands, there are some 70,000 Eskimos. Thus, the nontropical parts of North America and Eurasia may be united into one large zoogeographical region, the Holarctic. The subarctic zone, extending from 58° N lat. Coniferous forests cover the coast of California and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. The rivers of the Laurentian Upland, the Mackenzie Lowland, and the Yukon Plateau (Mackenzie, Churchill, Yukon) generally flow through numerous lakes but have irregular regimes. Both the northern and southern Appalachians have narrow grabens with continental sediments and basalt lavas of the Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic created by the break-up of the Appalachian system before it entered the platform stage of development. There are significant temperature variations between the northern and southern parts of the Central Plains in all seasons but especially during the winter, which is one of the main reasons for the sequence of landscapes from taiga to subtropical forests. Across regions of what is now the United States, social organization were building mound complexes, with some supporting sizable communities year-round. However, a high proportion of the continent has temperate climates very favorable to settlement and agriculture. The platform is surrounded by Caledonian folded mountain structures (northeastern part of the mainland, Greenland, Newfoundland, and the northern Appalachians), by Hercynian folded structures (southern Appalachians, Ouachita Range and its buried continuation, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago), and by the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Cordilleras. The central part of the subarctic zone, east of the Cordilleras, is markedly continental with very cold weather. The formation of the mountains on the arctic islands is related to crustal movements in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, which simultaneously created the large basins on the floor of the northern Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The climate, strongly affected by the arctic, is marked by low temperatures, strong winds, and high humidity. In 1867, Canada was granted the status of a dominion within the British Empire. , which utilizes the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, enables oceangoing vessels to penetrate into the heart of North America. Relatively dry arctic soils and tundra arctic soils are typical for the northern islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Volcanic lakes occur in many parts of the Cordilleras—in Alaska, the Cascade Range, Mexico, and Central America. Tundra occupies the southern part of the archipelago and stretches in a broad band along the Arctic coast of the mainland. Special Olympics is dedicated to empowering individuals with intellectual disabilities to become physically fit, productive and respected members of society through sports training and competition. The central and western parts of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago consist of stepped plateaus and marine accumulative lowlands with ther-mokarst lakes and other permafrost landforms. In the northwest the Russians I. Fedorov and M. Gvozdev discovered the Seward Peninsula in 1732, and in 1741, V. Bering and A. Chirikov discovered part of the coast of the Gulf of Alaska, the Alexander Archipelago, Kodiak and nearby islands, and several of the Aleutian Islands. Between 1492 and 1503, Columbus headed four Spanish expeditions that discovered the Bahamas, Cuba, Haiti, the Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Caribbean coast of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and the Isthmus of Panama. In the western part of the continent, on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands, forest-tundra is replaced by oceanic meadows, which develop in a marine climate with summer temperatures that are not warm enough to permit tree growth. Chestnut soils, forming large pockets on the Great Plains and Columbia Plateau, are much more widely represented. According to data obtained from drilling and geophysical studies, the basement of the remainder of the platform, covered by a sedimentary mantle, is also composed primarily of Early Precambrian metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks and granite gneisses. Michelle leads all North American regional management efforts to efficiently and effectively enable members to maximize the value they receive from PrimeGlobal. North of the Great Plains is the Mackenzie Lowland. Our Regional Headquarters is located in Detroit, along with other strategically placed offices and warehouses in the U.S. and Mexico. The Pacific air usually does not cause summer precipitation, except in southeastern Alaska, where it reaches the coast at an angle. In the eastern part of the eugeosyncline (the Alaska Range, Canadian Coast Mountains, and Sierra Nevada), the geosynclinal complex of rocks, dating from the Cambrian to the Jurassic, includes cherts, basic and neutral volcanic rocks, and terrigenous rocks. To the west stretches an irregular belt of interior uplands and plateaus with elevations of 1,000 m to 2,000 m: the Yukon Plateau, the volcanic British Columbia plateaus, the Columbia Plateau, the Great Basin, the Colorado Plateau, and the volcanic plateaus and uplands of the interior of the Mexican Highlands. The region’s warm moist oceanic climate favors the development of a rich, primarily subtropical, flora. Anthropologically, the people are mestizos, but they speak Spanish. Because of centuries of discrimination and segregation they have preserved many anthropological traits and some cultural traits, although they speak only English. Many of the volcanoes, notably Mount Wrangell, Lassen Peak, and Popocatépetl, are active. In the most humid areas, chiefly at the foot of windward mountain slopes, grow evergreen rain forests, complex in composition, consisting of giant trees (covered with lianas and epiphytes) and bamboo groves. Shield, has a relatively elevated (150–600 m) and strongly pene-plained surface. Whereas the Gulf of Saint Lawrence has both straight abrasion and bay shores, the peninsulas of Nova Scotia and the northeastern USA have tectonic and erosion-tectonic coastlines with numerous skerries. To the west of this mountain system lies a zone of depressions occupied by bays (Cook Inlet, Puget Sound, and the Gulf of California) or by lowlands (Willamette Valley, Central Valley). P. K. Krenitsyn and M. D. Levashev essentially completed the discovery of the entire Aleutian chain in 1768–69. In such cases dry, hot weather with strong winds sets in over most of the continent in the south. Steppes are found on the Great Plains, on the Columbia Plateau, and in the Central Valley. From 1884 to 1904 the Canadians A. Main sections in the system are the White Mts., Green Mts...... Click the link for more information. Lying mostly in Nevada and extending into California, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah, it is bordered by the Sierra Nevada on the west, the Columbia Plateau..... Click the link for more information. The platform’s sedimentary mantle, primarily at the boundary with folded regions, contains many deposits of petroleum and gas in all the Paleozoic systems (in the west, in the Mesozoic systems as well). They include the Brooks Range, the Mackenzie Mountains, the eastern ranges of the Rockies in Canada and the northern USA, and the Sierra Madre Oriental. The taiga consists chiefly of dark coniferous species with an admixture of small-leaf species (black and white spruce, balsam fir, aspen, and paper birch) and of pine woods (Weymouth and jack pine), growing on sandy deposits. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Fast rates of growth in the Asia-Pacific region in the past 10 years mean that it will overtake North America as the highest regional defence spender by 2029, according to the latest data from Janes. Between 1819 and 1825, W. Parry discovered three straits near 74° N lat., the islands adjacent to them, and the Melville Peninsula, revealing that Baffin Land was an island. Various types of mountain soils are found on the slopes of the Cordilleras; brown-forest mountain soils prevail in humid regions and cinnamon-colored mountain soils in dry regions. in the west and from 50° N lat. Asia. It is 24 million square km. The independence of Panama was proclaimed in 1903, but the USA imposed on the Panamanians a treaty giving it perpetual use of a zone in which to build and operate an interoceanic canal. Western Canada and southern Alaska have a fjord coastline. 2016 World Federation of Direct Selling Associations | All Rights Reserved. The largest country by land area is Canada, and by population is United States. The Central Plains are bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountains, which extend from southwest to northeast as far as Newfoundland. The Great Basin has relict lakes that have survived from the humid period of the Pleistocene; the largest of them is the Great Salt Lake. Searching for the Northwest Passage, the French explorer J. Cartier sailed around the north coast of Newfoundland in 1534–35 and discovered the southeastern coast of the Labrador Peninsula, Prince Edward Island, the Gaspé Peninsula, Anti-costi Island, and the St. Lawrence River. In the Mexican Highlands the topography is dominated by high plateaus and highlands, in places very rugged. The most famous national parks are Yellowstone, Grand Canyon, Yosemite, Banff, Jasper, Sequoia, and Everglades. The northern coast of Alaska and the western part of the Canadian Archipelago have a more continental arctic climate with little precipitation. On the west coast, south of 37° N lat., the amount of precipitation drops sharply, primarily as a result of the almost completely dry summer. In the south the Cordilleras merge with the structures of the Antilles-Caribbean region. Weather ranges from icy Greenland to tropical beaches of the Caribbean, and an incredible array of national parks and preserves show off huge canyons, breathtaking mountains, ancient forests, and fascinating wildlife.Every part of the continent has a complex and mixed cultural heritage, shaped by indigenous peoples, colonization, and … The continent is bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the west by the Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea, and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. climate with frost-free rainy winters and dry summers; the interior plateaus of the Cordilleras have a dry continental climate with very hot summers; and the east coast has a humid monsoonal climate. North America's extensive agricultural lands (especially in Canada and the United States) are a result of the interrelationship of favorable climatic conditions, fertile soils, and technology. After the Spanish-American War (1898), Cuba was declared an independent republic, although in fact it became a US protectorate in 1901. There are many lakes of lagoon origin in the coastal lowlands. Orography. The Central Plains and northeastern part of the continent receive 600–1,000 mm a year, most of it in summer. Our employees work hard to provide exceptional customer support in the areas of logistics, warehousing, packaging operations, quality and engineering. 571,949,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. On 1st October 2010, the Region was expanded to take in all those overseas members of the Air Pilots resident in the United States of America; thus forming one North America Region, now called The Honourable Company of Air Pilots (North America). 3 splits - Fall, Winter, Spring - each have 3 regional events leading into an international major. It consists generally of a great mountain system (the Western Cordillera) extending along the entire W coast, actively volcanic in the extreme north and south, with the Great Plains to the east and the Appalachians still further east, separated from the Canadian Shield by an arc of large lakes (Great Bear, Great Slave, Winnipeg, Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario); reaches its greatest height of 6194 m (20 320 ft.) in Mount McKinley, Alaska, and its lowest point of 85 m (280 ft.) below sea level in Death Valley, California, and ranges from snowfields, tundra, and taiga in the north to deserts in the southwest and tropical forests in the extreme south. In the east the rivers have stable regimes, a large water content, and enormous energy reserves, especially the Ohio River and its tributaries. 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